Published in the journal:
Breast Cancer Volume 18, Number 10, 2010
Ph.D. I.V. Kononenko, Professor O.M. Smirnova
Federal State Institution Endocrinological Research Center, Moscow
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, which is the result of secretion defects and insulin action. This is a severe, chronic and constantly progressive disease. An unfavorable prognosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) is determined by the development of macro- and microvascular complications. The cause of macrovascular complications is atherosclerotic damage to the main arterial pools, leading to the development of coronary heart disease and its complications, cerebrovascular disease and obliterating damage to the arteries of the lower extremities. Microvascular complications are based on diabetes mellitus-specific lesion associated with thickening of the capillary basement membranes. Clinical manifestations of microangiopathy - diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. Diabetes is the most common cause of blindness in adults. The goal of treating diabetes is to normalize blood glucose levels and reduce the risk of developing macro– and microvascular complications. The most important risk factors affecting the development of cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes are the state of carbohydrate metabolism, the level of blood pressure and the lipid spectrum of blood plasma. Table 1 presents the target values of the main indicators, the achievement of which ensures the effectiveness of treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Table 1. Control parameters (treatment goals) for type 2 diabetes mellitus (Algorithms for specialized assistance to patients with diabetes mellitus, 2009)