The formula of sucrose and its biological role in nature

It is proved that sucrose is a component component of any plant, especially a lot of it is contained in beets and reeds. The substance belongs to disaccharides, under the influence of some enzymes, it breaks down into glucose and fructose, which constitute the bulk of polysaccharides.

The main source of sucrose is sugar, it has sweet colorless crystals, which dissolve perfectly in any liquid. At temperatures above 160 degrees, sucrose melts, and when frozen, a transparent mass of caramel is obtained. In addition to sucrose and glucose, the substance contains lactose (milk sugar) and maltose (malt sugar).

How sucrose affects the body

What is the value of sucrose in the human body? The substance provides the body with a supply of energy, without which the functioning of internal organs and systems is impossible. Sucrose helps protect the liver, improve blood circulation in the brain, it also protects against the pathological influence of toxic substances, supports the work of striated muscles and nerve cells.

In acute sucrose deficiency, there is apathy, fatigue, depressive state, excessive irritability, even unreasonable aggression. Feeling unwell may even worsen, for this reason it is important to lead to a normal amount of sucrose in the body.

However, exceeding the indicators of a substance is extremely dangerous, while the inflammatory process in the oral cavity, periodontal disease, candidiasis inevitably develops, body weight rises, the first signs of diabetes of the first or second type appear.

When the brain is too overloaded with mental activity, the body is exposed to harmful substances, the patient feels an increased lack of sucrose. So and vice versa, the need is reduced, if there is:

  • overweight,
  • low motor activity
  • diabetes.

During medical research, it was possible to determine the rate of sucrose for an adult, it is equal to 10 teaspoons (50-60 grams). You should know that under the norm understand not only sugar in its pure form, but also the products, vegetables and fruits, which it is part of.

There is an analogue of white sugar - brown sugar, which, after separation from raw materials, cannot be further purified. This sugar is called unrefined, its calorie is slightly lower, but the biological value is higher.

We must not forget that the difference between white and brown sugar is insignificant; in the event of a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, both options are undesirable, their consumption is reduced to a minimum.

Physical and chemical properties

Sucrose is an organic compound derived from glucose and fructose residues. It is a disaccharide. Its formula is C12H22O11. This substance has a crystalline form. He has no color. The taste of the substance is sweet.

It is distinguished by excellent solubility in water. This compound can also be dissolved in methanol and ethanol. For melting of this carbohydrate temperature from 160 degrees is necessary, as a result of this process caramel is formed.

For the formation of sucrose, the reaction of detaching water molecules from simple saccharides is necessary. She does not show aldehyde and ketone properties. When reacting with copper hydroxide forms sugar. The main isomers are lactose and maltose.

Analyzing what this substance consists of, one can name the first thing that differs sucrose from glucose - sucrose has a more complex structure, and glucose is one of its elements.

In addition, the following differences can be mentioned:

  1. Most sucrose is in beets or cane, which is why it is called beet or cane sugar. The second name of glucose is grape sugar.
  2. Sucrose has a sweeter taste.
  3. The glycemic index of glucose is higher.
  4. The body absorbs glucose much faster, because it is a simple carbohydrate. For the assimilation of sucrose, its preliminary breakdown is necessary.

These properties are the main differences between the two substances, which have quite a lot of similarities. How to distinguish between glucose and sucrose in a simpler way? It is worth comparing their color. Sucrose is a colorless compound with a slight luster. Glucose is also a crystalline substance, but its color is white.

Biological role

The human body is incapable of direct assimilation of sucrose - this requires hydrolysis. The compound is digested in the small intestine, where fructose and glucose are released from it. It is they who are further split, turning into energy necessary for vital activity. It can be said that the main function of sugar is energy.

Thanks to this substance, the following processes occur in the body:

  • ATP release,
  • maintaining the norm of blood corpuscles,
  • the functioning of nerve cells,
  • the activity of muscle tissue
  • glycogen formation
  • maintaining a stable amount of glucose (with the planned splitting of sucrose).

However, despite the presence of beneficial properties, this carbohydrate is considered "empty", so its excessive consumption can cause disruptions in the body.

This means that the amount per day should not be too large. Optimum it should be no more than the 10th part of the calories consumed. In this case, this should include not only pure sucrose, but also that which is included in other foods.

Completely exclude this compound from the diet should not be, because such actions are also fraught with consequences.

Such unpleasant phenomena, such as:

  • depressive mood
  • dizziness,
  • weakness,
  • increased fatigue
  • reduced performance
  • apathy,
  • mood swings
  • irritability,
  • migraine,
  • weakening of cognitive functions
  • hair loss,
  • brittle nails.

Sometimes the body may experience increased demand for the product. This happens during active mental activity, because the passage of nerve impulses requires energy. This need also arises if the body is exposed to a toxic load (sucrose in this case becomes a barrier to protect the liver cells).

Sugar harm

Abuse of this compound can be dangerous. This is due to the formation of free radicals, which occurs during hydrolysis. Because of them, the immune system is weakened, which leads to an increase in the vulnerability of the body.

The following negative aspects of the influence of the product can be mentioned:

  • violation of mineral metabolism,
  • reduction of resistance to infectious diseases
  • a detrimental effect on the pancreas, which causes diabetes,
  • increase the acidity of gastric juice,
  • displacement of vitamins from group B, as well as essential minerals (as a result, vascular pathologies, thrombosis and heart attack develop),
  • stimulation of adrenaline production,
  • harmful effect on teeth (the risk of caries and periodontal disease increases),
  • pressure increase
  • the likelihood of toxicosis,
  • violation of the process of assimilation of magnesium and calcium,
  • negative effects on the skin, nails and hair,
  • the formation of allergic reactions due to "pollution" of the body,
  • promote weight gain
  • increased risk of parasitic infections,
  • creating conditions for the development of early gray hair,
  • stimulation of peptic ulcer and asthma exacerbations,
  • the possibility of osteoporosis, ulcerative colitis, ischemia,
  • the probability of increasing hemorrhoids,
  • increased headaches.

In this regard, it is necessary to limit the consumption of this substance, preventing its excessive accumulation.

Natural sources of sucrose

To control the amount of sucrose consumed, you need to know where this compound is contained.

It is included in many foods, as well as its distribution in nature.

It is very important to take into account which plants contain a component - this will limit its use to the desired rate.

A natural source of a large amount of this carbohydrate in hot countries is sugarcane, and in countries with a temperate climate - sugar beet, Canadian maple and birch.

Also many substances are found in fruits and berries:

  • persimmon,
  • corn,
  • grapes
  • pineapple
  • mango,
  • apricots,
  • tangerines,
  • plums
  • peaches
  • nectarines,
  • carrots
  • melon,
  • strawberries
  • grapefruit
  • bananas
  • pears,
  • black currant,
  • apples
  • walnuts,
  • beans,
  • pistachios
  • tomatoes,
  • potatoes,
  • onions,
  • sweet cherry
  • pumpkin
  • cherry,
  • gooseberry,
  • raspberries,
  • green peas.

In addition, the compound contains many sweets (ice cream, candy, pastries) and certain types of dried fruit.

Production features

Production of sucrose implies its industrial extraction from sugar-containing crops. In order for the product to comply with GOST standards, it is necessary to comply with the technology.

It consists in performing the following actions:

  1. Purification of sugar beet and its grinding.
  2. Placing raw materials in diffusers, after which hot water is passed through them. This allows you to wash up from beets to 95% sucrose.
  3. Processing solution using lime milk. Due to this impurities are precipitated.
  4. Filtration and evaporation. Sugar at this time differs yellowish color due to coloring matter.
  5. Dissolving in water and purifying the solution using activated carbon.
  6. Re-evaporation, the result of which is getting white sugar.

After that, the substance is crystallized and packaged in packages for sale.

Sugar production video:

Application area

Since sucrose has many valuable features, it is widely used.

The main areas of its use include:

  1. Food industry. In it, this component is used as an independent product and as one of the components that make up the culinary products. It is used to make sweets, drinks (sweet and alcoholic), sauces. Also, artificial honey is made from this compound.
  2. Biochemistry In this area, carbohydrate is a substrate for the fermentation of certain substances. Among them are: ethanol, glycerin, butanol, dextran, citric acid.
  3. Pharmaceuticals. This substance is often included in the composition of medicines. It is contained in the shell of tablets, syrups, mixtures, medicinal powders. Such drugs are usually intended for children.

Also, the product is used in cosmetology, agriculture, in the production of household chemicals.

How does sucrose affect the human body?

This aspect is one of the most important. Many people seek to understand whether it is worth using the substance and means with its addition in everyday life. Information about the presence of his harmful properties is widely spread. Nevertheless, we must not forget about the positive impact of the product.

The most important action of the compound is to supply the body with energy. Thanks to him, all organs and systems can function properly, but a person does not feel fatigued. Under the influence of sucrose, neural activity is activated, and the ability to resist toxic effects is increased. Due to this substance, the nerves and muscles function.

With a lack of this product, a person's well-being is rapidly deteriorating, his working capacity and mood are reduced, and signs of overwork appear.

We must not forget about the possible negative effects of sugar. With its increased content in humans can develop numerous pathologies.

Among the most likely are:

  • diabetes,
  • caries,
  • periodontal disease
  • candidiasis,
  • inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity,
  • obesity,
  • itching in the genital area.

In this regard, it is necessary to monitor the amount of sucrose consumed. Thus it is necessary to take into account the needs of the body. In some circumstances, the need for this substance increases, and this needs attention.

Video about the benefits and dangers of sugar:

Also be aware of the limitations. Intolerance to this compound is rare. But if it is found, then this means the complete exclusion of this product from the diet.

Another limitation is diabetes. Is it possible to use sucrose in diabetes mellitus - it is better to ask the doctor. This is influenced by various features: the clinical picture, symptoms, individual properties of the organism, the age of the patient, etc.

The specialist can completely ban sugar consumption, because it increases the concentration of glucose, causing deterioration. The exceptions are cases of hypoglycemia, to neutralize which often use sucrose or products with its content.

In other situations, it is proposed to replace this compound with sweeteners that do not increase the level of glucose in the blood. Sometimes a ban on the use of this substance is weak, and diabetics are allowed to consume the desired product from time to time.

Watch the video: Structure Of Carbohydrates - What Are Carbohydrates Made Of -Structure Of Glucose Fructose Galactose (February 2020).